Food System Planner
An Apple a Day: Doctors and Organizations Writing a New Nutrition Rx
Can an apple a day really keep the doctor away? As it turns out, there’s more truth than myth to this sage saying. Not only are apples a low calorie food with tons of vitamin C, they also contain phytonutrients, which prevents neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinsonism. Though the wonders of apples as preventative health may not be common knowledge, we can all get behind the idea that everyone needs to eat more fresh fruit and vegetables to live a healthy, long life that involves fewer doctor visits. Doctors and farmers both think so, and they’re teaming up to help make this a reality.
Nonprofits, like Wholesome Wave and DC Greens, which runs several food access and urban agriculture projects in our nation’s capital, are connecting physicians who are already dedicated to preventative wellness and nutrition, like those at Unity Health Clinic (Unity) in Washington, D.C., to fresh produce.
Physicians, like Dr. Jessica Wallace at Unity, are writing prescriptions for locally grown fruits and vegetables that their low-income patients can then take to five D.C. farmers’ markets, Columbia Heights Community Marketplace, Mount Pleasant, 14th and U St., Bloomingdale, and Glover Park-Burleith.
“We know nationwide that poor minority communities suffer disproportionately from chronic effects of nutrition and obesity,” says Dr. Wallace. “We’re able to target these people through partnerships to have a big impact for the people that need it the most.
Last year, Wholesome Wave partnered with 12 clinics and nonprofits around the country to run the Fruit and Vegetable Prescription Program (FVRx). Farmers’ markets have now become pharmacies, recommending berries for weight loss, leafy greens for heart health, and apples for neurodegenerative disease prevention. Physicians, in turn, are tracking body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and work with community health workers and nutritionists to regularly check in with patients to see if they’ve improved their nutrition and increased their amount of physical activity.
“It’s awesome from a community health perspective,” explains Dr. Wallace. “Targeting kids who are obese and overweight, but not stopping there. FVRx actually supports the entire family; once the kid qualifies for the program the entire family will receive the benefits, even though we were only monitoring the data of those qualifying kids.”
The connections between preventative healthcare and providing farmers with a more robust marketplace are being made at farmers’ markets. This budding relationship between doctors and farmers is even more important than ever before. At a time when we have more small farmers reliant upon farmers’ markets for a large part of their income and more overweight Americans with a lack of access to healthy foods, FVRx is convening multiple players to engage in hard conversations.
According to the Bipartisan Policy Center, obesity is the single largest threat to public health in America today. More than one-third of U.S. adults are obese, another one-third is overweight, and these rates keep on rising. America spends an estimated $190 billion annually on obesity-related illnesses. And while some of these costs are borne by the private sector, obesity also places a growing financial burden on the public. If we consider how much we spend on obesity related care, community-based wellness programs that target obesity with nutrition, fitness, and education could prove to be a cheaper solution.
Over 12 percent of D.C. households reported difficulty in affording and accessing fresh fruits and vegetables. At Unity, each family received $7 per family member, per week–a family of four received $112 every month for about 24 weeks. These extra dollars brought struggling families to the farmers markets and enabled them to purchase more fresh fruit and vegetables.
“D.C. is a city of dichotomies,” says Dr. Wallace. “There’s a tremendous wealth and opportunity here with constant changing demographics, but a lot of people living in D.C. struggle and don’t feel empowered in their surroundings.”
Columbia Heights Community Marketplace (CHCM), the most proximal farmers market to Unity, redeemed about 75 percent of FVRx prescriptions last year, bringing in about $600 per week and directing these extra dollars to six produce farmers. Josh Levine, the Market Manager at CHCM, says that the FVRx program was incredibly well received during their pilot season. He says, “It’s an interesting new program that gets people talking about food access in our community.” Matt Harsh, a farmer vending at CHCM, says, “It has increased our sales and correspondingly our income.”
Harsh describes the program as a way to connect to customers that he didn’t have relationships with before: “I’ve been able to talk to FVRx customers about what they planned to do with the things they bought and why they were buying them. Many of our FRVx customers tend to buy a lot of produce.”
The FVRx program enables low-income patients, like those at Unity, to take their health to another level. “They are incentivized and invested in a different way,” says Dr. Wallace. “Last year these patients had a tangible opportunity to take the information they were receiving from nutrition classes and actually apply it in a way that they wouldn’t have been able to do without this support.”
Increasing one’s intake of fruits and vegetables may seem like an unnecessary investment when compared against today’s looming economic pressures, but it has a potential for big returns. Out of the 36 children who participated in FVRx at Unity last year, 53 percent saw a decrease in their BMI percentile, a measurement that qualifies them for being obese and overweight.
This implies that in addition to enjoying the farmers’ market experience and developing good eating habits at a young age, FVRx was successful in reducing the rate of obesity for these at risk youth. These kinds of partnerships are making the case; that yes, nutrition education coupled with physical activity and an increased intake of fresh fruits and vegetables will reduce one’s chances of being obese, and at a more affordable price than our mainstream healthcare system.
The FVRx program is outstanding, because doctors have their patients’ trust and are viewed as authorities, so when they say that “you need to eat more fresh fruits and vegetables and here’s where you can get them, oh, and here’s some extra market dollars you can use to purchase them,” then you take heed. There’s research to be explored on this topic as we move past the pilot years. Doctor-patient relationships built around increasing healthy food access at farmers markets could make a strong case as to how and why we need to change our healthcare and food systems.
The Farmers Market Coalition reminds us that farmers’ markets are more than transactions for food. They are rooted in community and can play a significant role in improving our overall health. Ashley Fitch, Wholesome Waves’ FVRx Program Director, describes FVRx as community driven.
Fitch says, “There has been a good deal of interest expressed from clinics and healthcare professionals in joining the Wholesome Wave FVRx umbrella.” As we move into 2013, Wholesome Wave will be focusing on the sustainability of FVRx, which means paring down the number of partner organizations they work with in the near future.
“Wholesome Wave is thinking more carefully about the nutrition education standards as we move forward,” says Fitch. “We’re going to be focusing on gathering data for proof of concept, identifying key policy targets, scaling the program, and engaging an advisory board to help guide a panel of experts in the field.”
Unity sees 90,000 underserved D.C. residents at several sites throughout the city. Dr. Wallace would like to have the Unity clinic in Upper Cardoza be an example of what can happen at all Unity clinics in the city. Lauren Shweder Biel, the Executive Director of DC Greens, would agree that there’s a lot of potential to pilot programs like FVRx throughout the city.
FVRx was a program birthed from innovation, a need, and existing relationships. “We want to look at other systems where DC Greens has strong partnerships,” says Biel. “DC Greens has extensive relationships with District schools and we are thinking through what other food access projects would be like with other similar institutions concerned about community health and wellness.”
Additionally, Physicians are rethinking the role nutrition plays in the healthcare system, but the funding has to catch up to their ambition. Philanthropic fundraising for these projects can only go so far. D.C., in particular, has a tax surplus that policymakers are considering putting towards healthy food access projects. Hospitals in the District with bigger wallets are also beginning to think about whether this program is worth their while.
The only way these programs will ever be truly sustainable is through public-private partnerships; where cities plan for them in their budgets, private investors, and corporations have continued commitment, and hospitals build them into their financial structures.
Whether we find support for FVRx through building community wellness into our institutional and city financial plans, or through further examination of the success of FVRx as being fiscally responsible and clinically proven, those that are dedicated to our community’s healthcare and wellbeing, particularly in D.C., are stepping up to the plate.
The Farm Bill: An Opportunity to Address Latino Childhood Hunger through Public-Private Partnerships
About 30.7% of children in the District of Columbia live in households without consistent access to food. Many of these children are Latino and disproportionally suffer from food insecurity. Hunger affects more than just the individual, and places a financial hardship at the family and societal level. Hunger is also expensive, costing the US about $167.5 billion in loss of economic productivity. Nutrition is a vital part of healthy childhood development. Children who go hungry perform poorly in school and experience a decrease in work productivity.
Public-private partnerships enable collaborative projects that address food insecurity. Private corporations have foundations that fund important anti-hunger organizations that teach cooking classes and shopping on a budget, offer incentive dollars to those using their federal benefits at farmers markets to increase their purchasing power of healthy foods, and conduct outreach into underserved communities to increase nutrition education and food access. These community-based nonprofits track changes in community hunger through diligent data collection and analysis. This information is synthesized to advocate for policy change that better accommodates these projects and connects public funding to improve the sustainability of them in the future. These are just a few examples of what can happen when private, nonprofit, and public entities get together.
I’ll be joining Julia-Feliz Sessoms, Director of Global Public Policy and Government Affairs at PepsiCo; Rudy Arredondo, President and CEO of National Latino Farmers and Ranchers Trade Ass; and Lisa Pino, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights at the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights, USDA to discuss how public-private partnerships can address childhood hunger. We’ll be hosted by the Next Generation of Latino Leaders at the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute to talk about the Farm Bill’s Farmers Market Promotional Program as a way to facilitate projects that alleviate Latino childhood hunger. You can register here: http://www.chci.org/fellowships/page/2013-health-graduate-summit , and participate in the discussion.
Detroit: Land Grab or City Revival
On December 11th, the Detroit City Council approved the sale of public land to the controversial Hantz Farms, now turned Hantz Woodlands urban forestry project, in Detroit’s eastside neighborhood. The deal confirms the sale of 140 acres of public land at the handsomely cheap price of 8 cents per square foot ($300 per lot). This is one of the largest urban land acquisitions in the history of any U.S. city and it’s being sold at below market price at a time when Detroit is desperate for revitalization and business investment. The transaction was made with the meager conditions that John Hantz, a financial services entrepreneur and the private developer behind Hantz Farms, improves the underutilized land by demolishing 50 derelict buildings (some of which are inhabited), cleaning up and mowing overgrown lots, and planting 15,000 hardwood trees. This may never have happened in any other modern-day city, but in a place like Detroit, where finances are beyond tight, “money talks,” according to Rob Anderson, the Director of Detroit’s Planning and Development. As a result, many people are calling this deal between Hantz and the city of Detroit a “land grab.”
Detroit was once a thriving industrial town turned vacant at the hands of factory foreclosures and businesses abandoning the city for cheaper labor. At its height of grandeur, in the 1950’s, the city once had the highest rate of urban homeownership and median household income. Now the median household income is less than half of the state and there are over 103,000 “unimproved” vacant lots (about 30% of the city) that have been demolished (60% of those have been placed under city ownership, due to tax-foreclosures). It’s a devastating depiction of loss and the city is struggling to provide services to a dwindling population, where whole swaths of neighborhoods are gone. Many government officials are looking to private enterprises as a means to fill in these gaps. Thus, Detroit’s abandoned lots and buildings have become an auction house with little to no standardization.
Like other land speculators have done in Detroit, Hantz saw an opportunity and discreetly began buying up city lots one-by-one before he petitioned to the city four years ago for the “world’s largest urban farm.” Hanzt plans to buy up more and possibly resell it once the land value increases. Hanzt Group, the LLC funding Hantz Farms, has been working under the auspices that repurposing the land would remediate derelict lots and beautify the neglected urban landscape. The tree farm posed itself as an easier option for Hantz than agriculture, since the City Council has yet to finalize proposed zoning changes that will allow for urban agriculture to exist as the main use of the property. Despite these restrictions, urban agriculture has been a prevalent grassroots effort throughout the city, leading the city to be hailed as the leader in the urban agriculture movement.
In roughly 138 square miles, Detroit currently has more than 1,200 community farms and gardens, many of which farm with and for the community. In a city left with few grocery stores and dwindling public services, urban farming projects, like D-Town Farm and the Greening of Detroit, are working to reconnect Detroit’s inner-city residents to each other, the land, and healthy food. Organizations, like the Detroit Black Community Food Security Network (DBCFSN)—a coalition working collaboratively to build food security and food sovereignty in Detroit’s black community and the pioneer behind D-Town Farm—are encouraging black people (85-90% of the city’s population are African American) to mobilize for social change through urban agriculture.
Given the prevalence of urban agriculture in the city, there were many people who spoke out against the deal on the grounds that there are no clear processes for buying land and the present exchange between Hantz and the city furthers the land inequality amongst the haves and have-nots. Several community-based organizations, along with the City Planning Commission, Detroit Food Policy Council (DFPC), and many community farms in Detroit, including those within the eastside, are publicly and adamantly against the city’s deal with Hantz.
The last public hearing hosted by the DFPC and the City Planning Commission on December 10th gave Detroit’s citizens an opportunity to publicly voice their opinions about the Hantz Farms proposal. During which time, community members voiced a seemingly unanimous opposition. Gary Dennis, a Detroit resident says he’s been taking care of vacant lots near his house for years, one of which he bought for $1,000, $700 more than what Hantz paid per lot. “Now you want to sell the land that we’re keeping up,” Dennis asked Council members at the hearing.
Others spoke about how the city turned down their offer to buy lots for $200-$300 for commercial agriculture. Urban farmers, like Ryan Anderson who moved to Detroit to start a for-profit farm in North Corktown, have struggled with the city to purchase land and are forced to rent or commandeer lots. These farmers want to grow their business and they want to buy land too. The issue of zoning for agriculture in the city will soon be resolved by the City Council’s vote; however, the lack of consistency and processes in place for buying land remains a barrier for those without as much capital and political push as Hantz, though with similar agricultural intentions.
The DFPC published a report this December in response to and in summation of the public hearing on the Hantz proposal. The report outlines the sale of public land to Hantz Farms as a purchase agreement, which has fewer restrictions for the buyer, and provides recommendations for improving these processes that include the community. It also describes Detroit’s history of discrimination in land sales, as well as makes the city’s financial needs very real.
The City Council’s vote for selling public land to Hantz Farms was one in support of revitalization, but it negated the community’s opposition in order to do so. Mayor Bing released a statement in response to the Hantz deal to The Huffington Post that claims that the Woodlands is an answer to the city’s rampant blight. Proponents of the deal agree with Hantz’s statement that: “Placing city owned properties back in the marketplace will provide the city with revenue from the sale of surplus property, improve quality of life in surrounding neighborhoods, and reduce city operating costs by transferring maintenance costs to a private sector company.”
When I asked Mike Score, President of Hanzt Group, about Hantz Farms’ plans and community agreements, many of which were left vague and were primary concerns expressed at the public hearing, he said that they would work with K-12 programs to offer the Woodlands as a learning lab for students. He also said that they are partnering with Michigan State University to allow for research on the environmental and social impacts of the Woodlands. Though they have not engaged the community-at-large in a public hearing, Score described their outreach strategies as more being intimate. Rather, Hanzt Group have been engaging in one-on-one meetings with those interested in learning more about the project and with groups of no more than 10-30 people at a time. These outreach methods leave room for misunderstandings and breeds disconnection between neighbors. The one community group that does support this deal is the Lower Eastside Action Plan (LEAP), who publicly endorses this project and state that they “have generated a “Community Agreement” with Hantz Farms to assure that they live up to their (Hantz Group) promises and LEAP will monitor the project.”
Score told me: “There are a lot of different organizations in the community, all of which can argue that they are the true representatives of the community. We (Hanzt Group) choose the connection that felt most local and most appropriate. We (Hantz Group) won’t partner with everyone, because everyone isn’t affected and it’d be impossible to reach concessions with everyone, even those in the urban agriculture movement.”
Charity Hicks, a member of the Detroit Food Justice Task Force, described the deal as one that “favors capital at the expense of the community.” “Hundreds of people spoke out over the past two weeks against this project to the local legislative body, but it got ignored,” she says.
Hicks told me: “We (the Detroit food security and sovereignty community) are shifting gears from mobilization to grassroots.” There are 15 groups, and growing, that are collaboratively working on a community land trust proposal, which Hicks describes as having a process, “where land is equally distributed amongst the community, where the community and government can actively pursue policies, projects, and programs that support community based initiatives that foster self-sufficiency, community ties, and sustainable ways of living.” These groups have been working in the eastside of Detroit for years and are offering an alternative resolution to the Hantz deal. “We may have problems, but that doesn’t mean we don’t have solutions,” Hicks says.
Civil Eats post
CIW vs. Publix: A Battle For The Most Happy Thanksgiving
“I’m thankful for all of you,” says the patriarch praising a table of plenty where friends, family, and food take center stage. This scene of cornucopia is the setting of Publix’s several Thanksgiving commercials, like this one, that positions the Florida-based grocery store chain as the oracle of gratitude; not only saying grace for the turkey and stuffing, but for all of you as well, because without you they wouldn’t be able to come together and host such a fine dinner. In fact, they wouldn’t be able to provide for anyone’s Thanksgiving dinner if it weren’t for some key players, yes you, but also the farmers who are pinnacle to a grocery store’s success.
These commercials are not lacking in finesse or emotional pull. They create theater, where food means family and family means Publix. This is a very fine motif, but an incomplete and skewed one. Unfortunately, many holiday feasts this year will be ignoring the farmers role, which evokes the question, why aren’t we going public about our farmer appreciation and holding prosperous grocery stores responsible for partaking?
The Campaign for Fair Food, which has been organizing farmworkers in Immokalee, FL since 1993, is trailblazing responses to these poignant questions. November 14th marked the Thanksgiving Week of Supermarket Action, where the Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW), a community-based organization working with immigrants in low-wage jobs, and Fair Food activists across the country have been marching, singing, educating, and urging grocery stores to work towards a Fair Food Agreement. The message they are sending is that tomato farmers in Florida deserve a living wage for their hard work, a code of conduct for farmworker treatment, and the abolition of slavery from continuing in the fields.
Their vast efforts have thus far made great strides towards progress. Since 2001, the CIW has signed Fair Food Agreements with Yum Brands, McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Whole Foods Market, Compass Group, Aramark, Sodexo and Bon Appetit Management Company. This year, the Campaign has gotten Trader Joes and Chipotle on board, formalizing the ways in which these monoliths purchase and work with Florida tomato farmers.
Despite these milestones, grocery stores are poorly represented in the Campaign. To counter this, the Campaign is diligently working to break through these barriers of resistance, focusing on Publix’s opposition as they engage in a broad media campaign that purposefully leaves out the farmer. As one of the leading buyers of Florida tomatoes, Publix has refused to work with the CIW on any agreement that pays farmworkers a penny more per pound or guarantees fair labor practices. However, this may have to change soon because some of Publix’s plans to expand into other states and communities are being met with terms of conditions that demand that they come to an agreement with the CIW before moving in.
Publix sees their relationship with the CIW as a labor dispute, not one of food. “We don’t believe “just paying the penny” is the right thing to do — for Publix or our suppliers. Simply stated, Publix is more than willing to pay a penny more per pound — or whatever the market price for tomatoes will be — in order to provide product to our customers. However, we will not pay employees of other companies directly for their labor. That is the responsibility of their employer, and we believe all parties would be better served if appropriate wages were paid by growers to their workers, and we were charged accordingly.”
Farmworkers are committed to changing these conditions and convincing Publix that farmworker rights is also a food issue. They have organized fasts and sit-ins across the country that conveys just this. They have the Fair Food community’s rallying partnership and are calling for more support, because what they are up against is media manipulation on a goliath scale. The Campaign urges you to drop off a manager letter, like this one posted by the CIW, to the grocery stores in your neighborhood that have yet to sign a Fair Food Agreement and participate in educating your neighbors about farmworker’s roles in making holiday dinners possible. What better time than Thanksgiving to show your gratitude and support for the farmworkers that enable this to happen?
Also on Civil Eats
Shift Change: Putting democracy to work
“Would we have the IPhone if Apple was a cooperative enterprise,” asks the young moderator and worker-owner at NOBAWC -pronounced No Boss. A shout from the audience responded, “It would be called the WePhone,” followed by applauds.
This exchange happened last night in Oakland, CA at the premier of the new documentary, Shift Change. It was a comment on the notion that cooperatives (worker-owner enterprises, where everyone has an equal vote and equal pay and no boss) work well when small and focused on providing a service, rather than large, multinational even, and focused on innovation, much like Apple. Taking a look around at the audience members one would think that this was a crowd of idealist from the Bay Area—rather cliche—but the conversations and film content would say otherwise.
Ted Howard, Executive Director of the Democracy Collaborative in Cleveland, OH, introduced the film with his thoughts. “So many citizens have lost faith in the institutions, corporations, governments, and traditional ways of doing things. New ideas matter. Capital doesn’t always need to be in first place. Labor can take front seat and can use capitol in support of it.”
Though there are several examples of large scale cooperative service industries in the U.S., like Ace Hardware and Cabot Creamery, I couldn’t find an example of an innovative business built on research and technology, like Apple, that were working as a cooperative. The authors of Shift Change, Mark Dworkin and Melissa Young, interviewed cooperative worker-owners, like those at Arizmendi Bakery and WAGES, but really focused on the Mondragon Corporation in the Basque region of Spain, where a cooperative culture was developed in 1956.
The history of Mondragon dates back to 1941 with a young Catholic priest named José María Arizmendiarrieta, when the town’s population was about 7,000 and deeply suffering from the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War. Arizmendiarrieta educated the town on humanism, set up a technical college, selected a few people to pioneer the first cooperative industry, and the Mondragon model took off—in a nutshell. As a result, the Basque country has 14% unemployment in todays dire economy, compared to Spain’s national average of 25%. Mondragon employs more than 80,000 people and is the seventh largest Spanish company.
Mondragon is a great example of a successful cooperative at a large scale, and Shift Change does a great job in telling it’s story, but I was left wondering and hoping that there was a U.S. example that was working towards a larger and more technical model that included professionals outside of the service industry. The authors of Shift Change suggests that there is an alternative to the way the U.S. does business and seems to be using Mondragon as a paragon for how and why change should happen. The message is that a new economy is emerging and it’s being practiced across the country and around the world by all kinds of people. The film may have been a bit redundant in conveying this as the interviews retold the same benefits of working at a cooperative; mainly being a way to motivate, inspire, and engage in ways that workers are not able to in a capitalist workplace. Several of the interviewees say, “Workers are invested in what they do, because they own a piece of the company and have an equal say in how the business is governed and operated.”
Despite the reiterations and outdated videography, there are real truths and insights in Shift Change. The film highlighted stories about worker-owned enterprises that are rooted in community, are providing viable jobs, and reinvesting in education. “It’s not a marginal activity, these are serious businesses with good business plans,” says Melissa Young.
Arizmendiarrieta was quoted as saying, ”Nothing differentiates people as much as their respective attitudes to the circumstances in which they live. Those who opt to make history and change the course of events themselves have an advantage over those who decide to wait passively for the results of the change.” This seems like a commendable way of living and working together, one that I can get behind, regardless of its idealism, because we all need to work towards ideals, especially when we’re faced with a stagnant economy and social unrest.
Shift Change is being shown across the country throughout the next couple months. You can find a showing nearest you here
and learn how to get involved and create a cooperative in your community here
All Together Now: World Food Day 2012
One in seven people around the world will feel hunger today. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) brings global awareness to this issue every year on October 16th, and have done so since 1981. Today, there are more than 100 countries that will celebrate World Food Day. Over 450 national and private organizations in the U.S., such as Oxfam America and Ending Hunger, will host events around this year’s theme, “Agricultural cooperatives–key to feeding the world,” to bring better understanding around what cooperatives are and how they help relieve food insecurity and improve community self-sufficiency.
Agricultural cooperatives are enterprises owned and democratically operated by the employees that work there. They range from farming to retail coops that pool together resources and share in the costs and benefits of running a business. “There are many examples of co-ops and they take away the hierarchies that make it difficult to create a quality of life,” says Madeleine Van Engel, a baker-owner at Arizmendi, a cooperative bakery in the San Francisco Bay Area. Many examples of agricultural cooperatives in the U.S. not only feed their community, but also create economic and social sustainability in places often deemed unlikely.
Mandela Marketplace, a West Oakland non-profit, worked within their predominantly African-American and Latino community to identify ways to improve livelihoods and to create neighborhood investment. Together, they wanted to address the poor health statistics, where obesity rates are three times higher than the national average and where forty-eight liquor stores and zero grocery stores attempt to feed around 25,000 people. As a result, the Mandela Foods Cooperative opened its doors in 2009 as a worker-owned community market selling healthy food at an affordable price.
Mariela Cedeno, Senior Manager at Mandela Marketplace, describes the cooperative as community driven. More than forty percent of the produce sold at the cooperative comes from small farmers within a 200-mile radius, most of them minority farmers. They also employ community members, like Leroy Musgraves, a retired African-American farmer who hosts nutrition education sessions in front of the cooperative twice a week.
Three years later, Mandela Foods Cooperative is improving food security and the community marketplace in West Oakland. Ms. Cedeno says that, “being a cooperative means that everyone gets value out of the business and everyone is engaged in its mission to increase access to healthy food and increase the community’s wealth, they are equally invested in economic development and food.” Since the success of Mandela Foods Cooperative, the community of West Oakland and Mandela Marketplace has organized a produce delivery service that works with community youth to stock the shelves of corner stores with fresh produce.
The Toolbox for Education and Social Action lists 10 reasons why cooperatives work, starting with democracy and ending with viability. The FAO estimates that one billion people are members of cooperatives worldwide and they are generating more than 100 million jobs. The way we think about agriculture and food businesses is moving away from the trailblazing farmer tasked with feeding the world and moving closer towards business models that share resources, ideas, and finances. The National Council of Farmer Cooperatives found that“cooperatives account for nearly $654 billion in revenue, over two million jobs, $75 billion in wages and benefits paid, and a total of $133.5 billion in value-added income.”
World Food Day invites us all to take action and join the conversations. Many community-based organizations, agricultural cooperatives, and community leaders will host dinners, organize food packaging events, arrange food drives, plan community gardening events, and engage schools and institutions. There are also several national and international conferences and workshops taking place around the world that you can tune into. This year’s World Food Day conference will be hosted by Gorta in Dublin and will stream live today at 9am here. You can find out more about agricultural cooperatives and how you can get involved in your community to end world hunger one dinner at a time here.
BUILDING HEALTHY FOUNDATIONS FOR FARMERS MARKETS: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CITIES AND COUNTIES
This publication was produced by the
Community Food Security Coalition with
generous funding from the communities
Putting Prevention to Work Program and in
collaboration with the Farmers Market Coalition.
Authors: Stacy Miller, Jezra Thompson and
Justice for Food Workers: An interview with Sarumathi Jayaraman
See the Civil Eats article here
Sarumathi Jayaraman, co-founder of the Restaurant Opportunities Centers United (ROC) and author of the upcoming book Behind The Kitchen Door, says that what’s at stake when we choose a restaurant are the lives of 10 million people, many immigrants, many people of color, who bring passion, tenacity, and important insight into the American dining experience.
The Huffington Post posted a story about working conditions for restaurant staff that recants the stifling history of the “tipped minimum wage”, the lack of regulatory influence on service workers, and the harsh realities of being paid bare minimum for hard work in situations that are neither stable nor compassionate. Ms. Jayaraman’s promising book, Behind The Kitchen Door, investigates further and asks; can we really eat ethically if we’re only purchasing ethical food, but not ensuring that there are ethical labor practices for the people who get the food to our plates?
I had an opportunity to talk more via email with Ms. Jayaraman about their work with immigrant and low-wage restaurant workers.
JT: What was the impetus for the upcoming book, Behind The Kitchen Door?
SJ: Over the last ten years, we ROC has conducted more than 5,000 surveys of low-wage restaurant workers, 300 employer interviews, and 300 in-depth worker interviews, and have published more than 15 reports on the industry. Through all of this research, we have found that the extremely low wages, lack of benefits, and poor working conditions faced by the more than 10 million restaurant workers nationwide directly and severely impact the safety, health, and overall dining experience of every consumer who eats out. We wanted to write a popular book to let everyone who eats out understand what’s going on behind the kitchen door, and the severe implications of the poor wages and working conditions of the people who touch our food on our own health and welfare. I wanted to share my own story - that my own dining experience has changed in learning the stories of these workers, and that I think theirs will too. Most importantly, after learning about what’s going on, we want to implore every restaurant consumer to take small actions to change the industry - use ROC’s Diners Guide when eating out, let restaurant managers know that as consumers we care about whether the workers have paid sick days or are paid poverty wages as much as we care about whether the chicken is free-range. Ultimately, we hope to encourage consumers to let their legislators know that a minimum wage for tipped workers of $2.13 and a lack of paid sick days are simply unacceptable, both for the sake of those workers and the sake of our own health and welfare as consumers.
Q: Who do you want to read this book?
SJ: The target audience is everyone and anyone who eats out, but frankly that includes everyone who touches this industry, including workers, managers, owners, and policy makers.
Q: Does the book highlight individual worker stories? If so, were the workers that were interviewed for this book afraid of repercussions from their employers (future and current?)
SJ: Yes, this book highlights individual worker stories and yes, in some cases workers asked me to use a pseudonym and/or to not mention the name of their employer. However, in many cases workers allowed me to use their own names and bravely told their own stories because they felt it was too important.
Q: What questions do you hope this book will incite?
SJ: How did the industry get to this point - how did we allow undue corporate influence to create such incredible disparity in one of the nation’s largest industries? As a restaurant consumer, what can I do to change this situation?
Q: Are people prepared to bare the burden of higher meal costs at restaurants in order to supplement an increase in wages and standards for working?
SJ: All of our research - and in fact research by the USDA - indicates that there actually would not be a higher cost of meals at restaurants if workers were paid and treated well. We have several responsible employer partners who manage to pay livable wages and provide benefits with comparable menu prices to other restaurants in their segment of the industry. Our Diners Guide has awarded restaurant companies in every segment of the industry - fast food, casual, and fine dining restaurants - that provide these wages and working conditions without high menu prices.
Q: How can these costs be covered if businesses take it on themselves to increase wages and provide benefits?
SJ: The employers profiled in my book - and also in ROC’s recent report, “Taking the High Road: A How-To Guide for Successful Restaurant Employers,” talk about how providing increased wages and benefits might create an initial short-term cost, but that there are extremely high long-term costs for restaurant profit, including much lower turnover, which allows them to save the cost of hiring and training new workers all the time (most restaurants experience over 100% turnover in one year), increased productivity by their employees, including better service and ‘up-selling’ by dining room staff, decreased liability, increased worker loyalty and decreased theft and breakage, and more.
Q: What campaigns can concerned customers get involved with?
SJ: Currently, ROC has a campaign to encourage Darden, the owner of the Olive Garden, Red Lobster, Capital Grille, Bahamas Breeze, Seasons 52 and other brands, and the world’s largest full-service restaurant company, to end racial discrimination and wage theft and act as an industry leader with regard to poverty wages and paid sick days. Consumers can let the management in any of Darden’s restaurants know that they encourage the company to act as an industry leader on these issues. ROC also has engaged in local, state and federal policy campaigns. As a result of our efforts, for the first time in 15 years, House of Representatives leader George Miller introduced a minimum wage bill in Congress that includes a significant increase in the tipped minimum wage. Consumers can let their representatives know that they should move this legislation forward, for the sake of everyone who eats out.
Q: Does ROC work with other food service workers, like school cafeteria dietitians and/or cooks?
SJ: ROC’s membership of 10,000 includes all kinds of food service workers, both ‘front of house’ (dining floor) and ‘back of house’ (kitchen), but these workers primarily work in restaurants. We have had school cafeteria and other food service workers join ROC to access our free job training programs, which help workers advance to livable-wage fine dining service jobs. We train about 1000 workers per year through our training programs. In New York and Detroit, we run these training programs in our own worker-owned cooperative restaurants called COLORS. In other cities, we run these programs in partnering responsible restaurants. We have about 75 responsible restaurant partners around the country, including Tom Colicchio of Top Chef and Elan Hall of the Gorbals.
Q: Has there been a shift in worker practices and treatment in other industries that have set precedence?
SJ: We’ve actually seen a shift in our own industry that is example enough of what could occur at a national scale. We’ve won large campaigns against high-profile restaurant companies winning improved wages and working conditions in New York City that has impacted the industry nationwide — we’ve heard from workers everywhere that their employer changed something in their restaurant as a result of ROC’s work. We’ve also worked with any and every restaurant employer willing to partner with us to help them constructively improve their employment practices, impacting thousands of workers. We’ve also won local policy campaigns, increasing the minimum wage for tipped workers in New York State and passing a bill in Philadelphia that would make it illegal for restaurants to deduct credit card processing fees from workers’ tips.
But we’ve also seen another major shift in our industry that makes us believe that this book could have the power to improve wages and working conditions for workers nationwide. Eric Schlosser’s book Fast Food Nation and Michael Pollan’s book Omnivore’s Dilemma catalyzed hundreds of thousands of Americans to demand locally sourced, organic food from restaurants, and the industry has most definitely responded; there are more restaurants with such menu items than ever before. If Americans also demanded decent wages and benefits like paid sick days for the people who touch their food, the industry would most certainly respond. (By the way, Eric Schlosser has written the foreword to this book).
Q: Are there actions that people can take after reading the book?
SJ: Yes, there are specific recommended actions listed in the last chapter. Specifically, we hope people will use the ROC Diners Guide and speak to restaurant management every time they eat out . We also hope people will let their legislators know that a $2.13 minimum wage for tipped workers — is not acceptable.
Taking on Chipotle with the Campaign for Fair Food
Today is the kick off for the CIW Chipotle National Day of Action
The Fair Food Campaign is Fighting for Farmworker Justice
The CIW, in alliance with The Student Farmworker Alliance, Just Harvest, and Interfaith Action of Southwest Florida are coordinating protests in 25 cities this week as part of their plans for a National Day of Action. The CIW have been organizing since 1993 and their allies have been walking alongside them since 2001. Together, they are working with farmworkers in Immokalee, FL on the Campaign for Fair Food, a grassroots farmworker-led campaign to change living and working conditions for those in the fields picking tomatoes. (Florida’s tomato industry is responsible for nearly all of the fresh tomatoes grown in the U.S. between November and June.) The Campaign applies pressure to food corporations, like grocery stores and fast food joints, to sign the Fair Food agreement stating that they will purchase from farms that abide by a set of quality of life and living wage standards for farmworkers (basic asks include an increase of one penny per pound of tomatoes picked, respect for workers, business transparency, and an enforced code of conduct for agricultural suppliers). Tomato farmers haven’t seen a salary raise in over 30 years. These are not drastic asks, rather a human dignity not previously offered and now demanded for by a worker-run movement.
The Campaign has a simple tactic, leverage the buying power of customers purchasing fruits and vegetables. Large food chain stores and fast food restaurants, like Chipotle, buy huge quantities of the nation’s produce, which makes them prime targets for changing the food system through consumer demand. Customers have always had the power to vote with their pocketbooks and they have been voting for fair food, as the Campaign successes prove. Many ways in which consumers have expressed this vote is by making their voices and pocketbooks heard, sending manager letters asking food chain businesses to sign the agreement for Fair Food, holding peaceful protests, and purchasing at places that have signed the agreement.
Taco Bell was the first fast food chain to sign the agreement, which took four years of campaigning and boycotting before they agreed to provide fair food in 2005. Since then, the Campaign has reached YUM Brands, McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Whole Foods, Bon Appétit Co., Aramark and Sodexo, and Trader Joe’s without the need for boycotts. They are currently focusing on Publix, Kroger, and Ahold (international parent company of Stop & Shop & Giant) in the supermarket industry, and are applying a great deal of pressure on Chipotle in the fast food industry.
When the CIW approached Chipotle Mexican Grill they were part of the McDonald’s monolith. Though Chipotle works with some of the same growers that McDonald’s does, they have been refusing to sign the Fair Food agreement with the CIW, despite their hearty advertisement as an ethical eatery that purchases from local and sustainable farms that supply ingredients that are “raised with respect for the animals, the environment, and the farmers.”
Now, how does this translate to its workers in the kitchens and those in the field that supply their ethical produce and meats? And, can something be termed as sustainably farmed if their farmworkers are not treated “sustainably”? Well, it’s hard to tell, since we can only rely on a “he said, she said” vow. Until they actually sign the agreement for Fair Food, which delineates the exact ethics for purchasing the produce that Chipotle claims to.
“Change is an equation that includes workers, growers, buyers, and consumers,” says Jake Ratner, the community coordinator at Just Harvest, and “Chipotle’s stance represents an arrogant approach to food justice.”
Essentially, corporations have benefited from the free market and the unaffected politics that have created a history of corporate control. This has not served the laborers that bring the food to the table, and it has belied a mask of consumer choice with low prices that don’t reflect the true cost of the food being sold. In response, the CIW has established its own department of labor that sets wage standards and worker and corporate accountability. They are working one-on-one with the farms and big buyers, rather than relying on government (who have historically been way late to the table in responding to slavery in the fields and many other travesties that were supposed to be regulated) to make sure that the food we farm and eat is done so fairly. This is working towards a real sustainability that goes beyond organics and sets honest standards for both workers and buyers.
“The Campaign may not be taking on the Farm Bill or global trade policy directly,” say Kandace Eloisa Vallejo, a board member at Just Harvest, “but they are taking on chain restaurants and grocery stores,” which may prove more effective in the end.
The movement for fair food and farmworker justice is growing. Many of those working in the food movement will be called to take action to show solidarity with farm labor rights as a critical component in their work towards a sustainable food system. Additional information about pending protests will be posted on Facebook and other social media.
How Does Food Justice Happen? A brief case study on Just Harvest
Upton Sinclair wrote about the meatpacking industry in 1906 in his book, The Jungle. Sinclair was a novelist turned journalist with his revolutionary depiction of poverty, cruelty, and a savage lack of safety for those that worked in the food industry. Many of us became familiar with his story as required reading in school, but will return to it again as these atrocities continue to occur. According to the Food Chain Workers Alliance, more than 1 in 10 workers in meatpacking plants suffer illness and injuries related to their work, which is double the rate for all U.S. manufacturing. Just Harvest is a national organization that connects communities with actions around food injustices experienced by farmworkers and food chain workers, like those making and serving food in kitchens across the U.S.
The agricultural landscape, though it looks very different today than it did in Sinclair’s days, is still built on the backs of cheap, and sometimes slave labor, by the working poor, immigrants, and people of color. The Applied Research Center, Food Chain Workers Alliance, and the Restaurant Opportunities United have published several reports within the last two years that offer bleak depictions of life for those that work in the current food system. According to The Color of Food, people of color working in the food chain make less then whites, few people of color hold management positions, and many people of color are concentrated in low wage jobs.
While data-heavy reports can help craft change at the policy level and reaffirm the community work being done, they rarely get picked up by these grassroots as tools for the feild. According to Jake Ratner, a community coordinator for Just Harvest, the food justice movement is built like a ziggurat, one step at a time. Each meeting is one more step, each conversation means progress, and every single agreement with a corporation means a big win. These steps amass networks of people, community groups, organizations, nonprofits, businesses, and political officials working to activate change in the food system.
Just Harvest, in alliance with the Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW), The Student Farmworker Alliance, and Interfaith Action of Southwest Florida are building these networks of relationships for farm labor reform. Together, they are working with farmworkers in Immokalee, FL on the Campaign for Fair Food, a grassroots farmworker-led campaign to change living and working conditions for those in the fields picking tomatoes. (Florida’s tomato industry is responsible for nearly all fresh tomatoes grown in the U.S. between November and June.) The Campaign for Fair Food applies pressure to food corporations, like grocery stores and fast food joints, to sign agreements stating that they will only purchase from farms that abide by a set of quality of life and living wage standards for farmworkers (basic asks included in the agreement are an increase of one penny per pound of tomatoes picked, respect for workers, business transparency, and an enforced code of conduct for agricultural suppliers). These are not drastic asks, rather a human dignity not previously offered and now demanded for by a worker-run movement.
The Campaign for Fair Food has a simple tactic, leverage the buying power of customers purchasing fruits and vegetables. Large food chain stores and fast food restaurants buy huge quantities of the nation’s produce, which makes them prime targets for changing the food system. Customers have always had the power to vote with their pocket books and they have been voting for fair food over time, which is expressed through manager letters asking food chain businesses to sign the agreement for Fair Food, holding peaceful protests, and purchasing at places that have signed the agreement. Taco Bell was the first conquest, which took four years of campaigning and boycotting before they agreed to provide fair food in 2005. Since then, they’ve reached YUM Brands, McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Whole Foods, Bon Appétit Co., Aramark and Sodexo, and Trader Joe’s without boycotts. They are currently focusing on Publix, Kroger, and Ahold (international parent company of Stop & Shop & Giant) in the supermarket industry, and are applying a great deal of pressure on Chipotle in the fast food industry.
“The Campaign may not be taking on the Farm Bill or global trade policy directly,” say Kandace Eloisa Vallejo, a board member at Just Harvest, “but they are taking on chain restaurants and grocery stores,” which may prove more effective in the end.
Essentially, corporations have benefited from the free market and the unaffected politics that have created a history of corporate control. This has not served the laborers that bring the food to the table, and it has belied a mask of consumer choice with low prices that don’t reflect the cost of the food being sold. In response, the CIW has established its own department of labor that sets wage standards and worker and corporate accountability. They are working one-on-one with the farms and big buyers, rather than relying on government (who have historically been way late to the table in responding to slavery in the fields and many other travesties) to make sure that the food we farm and eat is done so fairly.
“Change is an equation that includes workers, growers, buyers, and consumers,” says Ratner. By calling for consumer support for corporate agreements with farmworkers, the CIW is using the same free market tactics to counter the corporate controls. This is good for the worker, farmer, and consumer.
Community organizers throughout the country, like Ratner and Vallejo, are highlighting the human realities many of these farmworkers face, but also bring light to the successes along the way, which, as Ratner says, can often go missing from many of the published reports and news stories. They do so through peaceful protests, community-theater, and civic engagement. The alliance has built support for the Campaign for Fair Food by talking about their work and the challenges ahead whenever they can. They involve everyone, from the Chicano youth to the elderly neighbors, from the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union to the unionized grocery stores. They go to schools, churches, and community centers. They let you know that this is a movement that concerns us all and that the tactics for getting there are simple; speak up, make connections, harness the group’s power, and stay local, but fight global.
Talking about food justice and piecing together our broken food system
I’m joining the team at Civil Eats to talk about some of the missing links within the food system. I’m interested in learning more about who’s story is not being told, who’s left out, what policies are being discussed, and who’s leading the dialogs. Stay tuned…
What is a food system? And, how do we plan for it?
Before we can even argue that our food system is broken; before we can head down that polemic about how the way we produce, distribute and consume food is deconstructing because the way we’ve designed it to do so has done so too well; before we can then talk about the reconstruction of a food movement rising from those left out, those wanting more for themselves, families, communities and earth; we need to understand the system. What is a food system to you? How do you relate to it? What do you see wrong and right about it?
It’s a complex web that involves those that grow the food, those that own the land, the policy makers that zone for said land, the aggregators and buyers of the food, the processors and distributors that get it to market and cafes, the farmers’ markets that small farmers rely on, the public space that brings in the customers, the guy grilling the burgers, the regulators of said burger and cow, the public health agency concerned about the related dietary illness cause by the way we’ve weaved this web, and the economic development group that works to stimulate the urban and rural community that feeds and eats. This, but also so much more, is the beginning of a food system. Don’t get bogged down. It’s important to understand the interconnectedness and to stay creative, because even those that you may initially think aren’t involved in the food system just might be.
Planners are very good at taking complex problems and linking them, much like Lincoln Blocks. Planners are typically trained to look at these problems, both physical, political, social and cultural, as well as historical, and at many different scales. Since the food system is very involved, as the list above touches on, it’s integral to address the web on a local, regional, state and national level. This is what a food system planner does, It’s an intricate game of connect the dots. Understand your system, build the relationships, layout the ground rules, educate, share, delve deep, and repeat.
Now, what is your food system? And, how can we all help plan for it?
The California Small Farms Conference
I’ll be talking about partnership building for community and economic development at farmers’ markets at the Small Farms Conference on March 4-6… expanding your customer base and creating sustainability. Check out the slide show here.
Session 2: 1:15 pm to 2:45 pm, Monday March 5th
” Broaden Your Base to Increase your Farmers’ Sales and Learn about Grant Resources”